THE TRUTH BEHIND CANCER & MEDICINE

THE TRUTH BEHIND CANCER & MEDICINE

A Six Part Series

 Note by Nancy:  Before you contribute another penny to cancer research, listen to this complete series.  There have always been cures to cancer … they have simply been stifled by the FDA, AMA, insurance companies, and the pharmaceutical industries.  Their goal is to make and keep you sick.

Until we take back our own power and take charge of our health, we will continue to have a society in which sickness is the norm.

The single most important thing all of us can do for ourselves is to become alkaline by eating lots of fresh, organic fruits and vegetables.  I recommend Dr. Theodore A. Baroody’s book entitled, Alkalize Or Die.  After listening to this series, you will know that Dr. Baroody’s title is not over-stated.  Our pH level is of utmost importance to a healthy body.

Give yourself and your loved ones the gift of listening to all 6 of these tapes, then revamping your diet to include lots of fresh, organic fruits and vegetables.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxI2c_Gtcd8&feature=related

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AcGnIgtVEEc&feature=related

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3xISTUP9gcg&feature=related

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FoZrNBZhmT8&feature=related

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyN2IipoAW4&feature=related

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qqImWBypKrM&feature=related

 

 

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GETTING TO KNOW SELF THROUGH ASTROLOGY

GETTING TO KNOW SELF THROUGH ASTROLOGY

Nancy B. Detweiler, M.Ed., M.Div.

Zodiac Signs, Ruling Planets, & Symbols in their Natural Houses

        2012 is to be a year in which we get to know self in preparation for Earth, and those inhabitants who so choose, to ascend to higher dimensions of consciousness.

There are many avenues of assistance in getting to know self.  As a professional counselor who used astrology as a counseling tool, I know first hand that astrology far exceeds all other methods.  Using the client’s astrological natal chart allows very precise, detailed information regarding him/her as a unique individual.  As a professional counselor, I had access to and could compare the results of standardized personality tests with the natal chart.  The two are like nursery school and graduate school in the amount of individualized information they provide.  A standardized test report reads much like a copy of the report on a previous client.  The same is true of all other standardized means of testing or knowing self.

I recently posted an article entitled “Are We Being Who We Really Want To Be?”  https://pathwaytoascension.wordpress.com/2011/12/07/are-we-being-who-we-really-want-to-be/

This article is based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, which can be very helpful in determining where an individual is focused in his spiritual evolutionary process.  Using the astrological natal chart in conjunction with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs greatly enhances the knowledge that can be ascertained in terms of individual responses.

Just as Creator God does not duplicate a snow flake, individuals are not duplicated either.   The astrological natal chart is the best possible means to know self as a unique being.  I have found the natal chart to be restricted in the information it affords only by the amount of time allotted to study it.  The natal chart is a limitless treasure chest of self-discovery!

Because it is impossible for one person to study numerous natal charts with great depth, I created a course entitled “Interpreting Your Own Esoteric Astrological Natal Chart for the Purpose of Soul Growth.”  This course is free and on my website at:  http://www.pathwaytoascension.com/astrology/index.htm

For those who simply wish to study their Sun Sign, go to:  http://www.pathwaytoascension.com/astrology/index.htm and scroll down to the index of Sun Signs—meaning Aries, Taurus, etc.  Your Sun Sign is determined by your date of birth.  In case you do not know your Sun Sign, look under the title, Aries, Taurus, etc., and find your correct birth date and Sun Sign.

We can learn much about self from studying our Sun Sign.  The Sun Sign represents our Soul and is described according to Alan Oken’s three levels of spiritual growth:  1. Personality level, 2. Awakening to the Soul-Personality Relationship, and 3. Soul Centered Level.

The level of spiritual growth needed for ascension is illustrated in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs by the 5th Step – Self-Actualization.  Likewise, the level of spiritual growth needed for ascension is illustrated in much greater detail in the Astrological Natal Chart by the Soul Centered Level.  Using these two indicators can be an excellent resource for us as we increasingly strive to progress on our spiritual evolutionary path to ascension.

I encourage all to embark on this very exciting journey of self-discovery and knowledge.  Knowing self is the way to self-esteem … to being who you really want to be … and the pathway to ascension.

Godspeed in your efforts!

 

A TRUE STORY FOR ALL YOUNG ADULTS!

A True Story for All Young Adults!

Written on 11/11/11 by Nancy Detweiler

On this most powerful energetic day–11/11/11–I honor Jamie, one of my granddaughters!

Many young adults are having such financial difficulties that it cripples them from expressing who they truly are.

I honor Jamie because she has allowed nothing to stop her.  We were able to have a short lunch together yesterday.  She told me that she has experienced her most successful year–successful to the point of not having to worry over paying her bills, which for someone self-employed is a tremendous accomplishment!  She added that she felt so loved and surrounded by angels … that ever since she began asking the angels for assistance, her business has soared!

I watched Jamie go through the tremendous emotional trauma of a divorce while still in her twenties.  I watched her carry the load of paying off bills relating to her marriage, with little or no help from her former husband.  I watched her quit a job in which she was unhappy, and with no savings or financial backing go out on her own.  She did this at a time when the economy made things very tough.  I’ve watched through the years as she never gave up, even when she was under tremendous emotional and financial stress.  She has done this knowing that if she could not pay her student college loan, she could not declare bankruptcy — there is NO forgiveness for failing to pay off a student loan.

And now, at age 30, she has made it–at a time when numerous much more well-established businesses had to close!  And soon, we will have a new economic system that will provide far greater opportunities for our young adults to follow their Soul’s path and use their God-given talents.  Jamie has crossed the bridge to a bright future as a professional photographer!

Working on your own is an experience that only those who have done so can understand.  To work with the pressure of knowing that if you do not earn what you need today, the monthly bills won’t get paid tomorrow is something others can not comprehend.  Others have a set salary that comes whether or not they have worked diligently that week or spent it goofing off. Others have back up in a spouse’s salary—an environment I do not call “working on your own.”

Working on your own involves … no paid vacation … no paid sick leave … no co-paid health insurance … no co-payment on FICA … no taxes withheld.  The individual who truly works on her own has absolutely no back-up assistance.  She alone must do it all, with no let up of effort!

Why would anyone choose to work on her own?  To be true to who she is … to use her talents in the way she chooses … to be free to innovate without having to abide by someone else’s demands.  The pay-off is earning a living while not knowing whether you are playing or working!  I don’t know the self-employed person who has made it that would voluntarily return to a “job.”  Most often “a job” means stifling who you truly are in deference to another’s demands.

To the self-employed, “making it” does not mean a new home, new car, and lots of material possessions.  Instead, “making it” is the joy of fulfilling your Soul’s Plan … of using your talents to make a difference in the world … of allowing who you are as a unique spark of divinity to unfold in ways that grant you and others moments of ecstasy … of knowing that you live your life fulfilling your individual role in the overall Divine Plan for humanity!

Jamie has done this and I am extremely proud of her!  She has proven in a very tangible form that “With God, all things are possible!”

That affirmation goes for all young adults who are frustrated and struggling with student loans, no “job” or a job they do not enjoy, and a very difficult economy. The answer to your dilemma could very well be that you need to follow your dream, your passion, your talents.  Once we embark on our Soul’s Path, the Way opens for us!

“Seek first [your unique place in] the kingdom of God and His righteousness, and all these things shall be added to you.”  (Matthew 6:33)  To be “righteous” means to abide by the Universal Laws, not simply the man-made laws of a particular group or society.

 

KNOW THYSELF: THE PATHWAY TO ASCENSION INTO MULTI-DIMENSIONAL SELFHOOD

“Know Thyself: The Pathway to Ascension into Multi-Dimensional Selfhood”

Nancy B. Detweiler, M.Ed., M.Div.

“I lift up mine eyes to the mountain from whence comes my help.  My help comes from the Lord, who made heaven and earth.”  (Psalm 121:1)

I lift up my eyes to the mountain of my I AM PRESENCE … and look out over our planet.  Hovering close to the surface, dark clouds of fear and violence appear to engulf our planet.  But wait!  Just above the dense clouds, ready to scatter the darkness, a matrix of shimmering, white light enfolds the entire planet.  It reminds me of riding in an airplane as it climbs upward through thick rain clouds.  For a few moments, I perceive my surroundings as dreary and gray.  Suddenly, the airplane emerges from darkness into brilliant sunlight.  I gasp.  My world is, instead, radiantly beautiful!  Dreary gray is transformed into sparkling, white clouds, opulent in their fullness and sprinkled with varying shades of rose pink.  Life is not as it appears to be.

From the physical plane, I behold a world that appears to grow more violent with every passing day.  Some of us try to ignore the potential repercussions of violence and go on with our lives.  Others openly pursue courses of action that will inevitably lead to violence.  Still others, out of fear for what might happen if we do not pursue the violent path, offer their support to those actions that sow the seeds of violence.  At this point in time, the heroic few take a stand for peace and for demonstrating compassion for all of humanity.  What would happen if we all sought to “Know Thyself”—to know the Truth about who we are?

The chaos so vividly evident on our planet is the result of humanity’s lack of comprehension of who we are.  We perceive ourselves to be a physical being that did not ask to be born … that will live this one lifetime … that will eventually die.  Those who believe in life after death tend to view it as taking place in either heaven or hell.  These misconceptions about who we are form the basis for all of life’s decisions from the personal level to the planetary level.  At present, our planetary culture is founded on non-truth.  To “Know Thyself” holds the capacity to transform our world.

Who are we?  “Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness ….’  So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.”  (Genesis 1:26-27)  To be created in the image of God means that we began our individual journeys as gods.  Jesus quoted Psalm 82:6  when he taught the crowds in Jerusalem, “Is it not written in your law, I said, you are gods?’”  (John 10:34)  According to the Cayce Readings, Jesus wrote Psalm 82 during his lifetime as Asaph, the Temple musician.  It is interesting to note that Jesus is responding to an angry crowd who believe problems are solved by violence.  They pick up stones in order to stone Jesus because he recognizes his true identity as a god.  Yet, Jesus responds to their anger by telling them that they, too, are gods.  Jesus reveals that the way to peace is to “Know Thyself” as god.

During the eons of living life as individual entities, we have forgotten who we truly are.  All sorts of non-truths dominate our belief systems.  We have taken the world’s sacred scriptures and interpreted them via the surface words only.  In most of these scriptures, the prevailing allegory for our life’s journey is that of a soldier entering battle under the protective arms of a Warrior God who fights against some warriors, while favoring others.  These misinterpretations have resulted in the non-truths upon which we are basing our present battle plans.

In order to “Know Thyself,” we must seek the Truth about ourselves and our entire human family.  Jesus taught, “You are gods.”  We must come to know ourselves as the gods that we are.

One of the most helpful meditative tools I know of is Elizabeth Clare Prophet’s “The Divine Self Chart.”

  Copies of this chart may be ordered from the Summit Lighthouse at:  http://tsl.org/2009/10/chart-of-your-divine-self/

I encourage you to order a copy and to meditate upon it daily.  Doing so will transform your life!

The Divine Self Chart reveals we are far more than we think.  It depicts the truth about humanity.  We are gods!  We have simply forgotten who we are.  Through the eons of incarnating on planet Earth, our conscious awareness has decreased to such an extent that we believe ourselves to be separated from God … to be solely the physical body we can see and touch … to be powerless.  We have come to believe in lack, deprivation, illness, evil, and death.  We are afraid because we believe ourselves to be helpless victims in the face of evil.  We are willing to resort to violence because we believe in death and therefore, that we must kill before we are killed.  We perceive our world as a dangerous place as a result of believing in death.  In truth, no one can hold the power of death over us.  We experience the loss of life only because we are so limited in our conscious awareness.

Study the Divine Self Chart—it depicts our multi-dimensional Selves.  The physical body stands on the physical plane.  For most of us, the physical body, emotions, and intellectual mind are the only parts of ourselves of which we are consciously aware.  This is why we feel so vulnerable to deprivation and harm.  The physical heart is depicted as a threefold flame, reminding us that we are gods.  The heart is the life center; it is this divine spark dwelling within the physical heart that grants us life.

The physical body stands surrounded by a purple flame.  This purple flame can be used to transmute negativity.  Because there is not space in this lesson to teach you to use the Flame, I encourage you to read my lesson on the “Transmuting Flame” at:  https://pathwaytoascension.wordpress.com/2010/12/05/the-purple-transmuting-flame-a-means-of-grace-for-the-21st-century/

When we call to the Flame to remove all negativity from the energy field that surrounds our lower bodies (meaning physical, etheric, emotional, and lower mental or intellect), we shield ourselves from any harm coming to us.  Like attracts like.  When our energy field is freed of hate, prejudice, resentment, lack of forgiveness, and fear – and – instead filled with love, compassion, and the recognition that we are One Human Family, we attract love not hate … abundance not lack … peace not violence.  We, as gods, assume the responsibility for the type energies we attract to ourselves.  We, as gods, choose and create the qualities that are present within our environment.  In doing so, we attune to the tremendous power dwelling within us.  We use God-power, not human-power.

Recall the stream of light extending upward from the top of our heads to the 2nd figure–the Christed or Higher Self.  The Christed energy is Divine Love energy and relates to all human beings regardless of religion.  In fact, the Christed/Higher Self exists in a higher dimension where religion does not exist.  This bridge of Light is an open channel through which we can make contact with our Intuitive Self … with our Soul … with the part of ourselves that knows the Divine Plan for this physical incarnation.  This part of ourselves beholds the physical challenges we confront.  The more we attune to our Higher Self, the more intuitive guidance we will receive.  If we listen and obey, we will know when danger to the physical body is present and know how to avoid possible harm.  This is the part of ourselves that knows the Way.  It is the part of ourselves that recognizes soul brothers and sisters, meaning those with whom we have shared many physical incarnations and played a variety of roles.  It is the part of ourselves that will recognize our twin flames when the time for reuniting arrives.  The Higher Self grants access to knowledge that is not available through the intellect; it is the source of Truth, inspiration and invention.  Conscious attunement to the Higher Self/Soul allows us to experience life on multi-dimensions.  We come to know that we are not alone on this planet.  Many beings in spirit are present to assist us in transforming our planetary chaos into the Garden of Eden through which we, as gods, entered the physical dimension.  Through attuning to the Higher Self, we—as gods—can receive the inspiration and guidance to develop peaceful solutions to all planetary difficulties.  We—as gods—possess the capacity to solve all problems with compassion and justice for all.

Recall the stream of Light extending upward from the Higher Self to the dove.  This dove signifies the Holy Spirit.  The stream of Light continues to be an open channel through which we can receive instruction from the Holy Spirit.  The Greek word Christed means anointed by the Holy Spirit.  To be anointed by the Holy Spirit is to become enlightened.  We behold life on multi-dimensions … we work cooperatively with those beings inhabiting the higher dimensions.  We have an example of this in Jesus’ transfiguration initiation.  While meditating on a mountain-top (signifying his I AM PRESENCE), Jesus beheld and talked with the Ascended Masters Moses and Elijah.  His disciples (Peter, James, and John) could observe Moses and Elijah discussing Jesus’ forthcoming crucifixion initiation.

Once more, recall the stream of Light extending upward from the dove to our I AM PRESENCE (the 3rd figure).  The channel of Light remains open and awaits our attunement to the part of ourselves that is the I AM—God individualized as you and me.  Our I AM PRESENCE is the all-knowing, all-powerful, omnipresent part of ourselves.  Attunement to our I AM PRESENCE allows us to see through the Eye of God … to live our physical plane lives as God manifesting through us.

Attunement to our I AM PRESENCE offers the opportunity to behold our One Human Family from an elevated level of consciousness.  From the perspective of our I AM PRESENCE, Divine Order is unfolding.  We can perceive the matrix of light enfolding our planet.  As we watch, we can see the pockets of darkness dissipating.  Darkness can suddenly evaporate through a seemingly random event or decision.  The surprising destruction of the Berlin Wall is an example.

Looking at life through the Eye of God affords a depth of understanding that can not otherwise be acquired.  The external appearance of evil can be transformed into Good when viewed from higher dimensions.  From this level, we intuit the Overall Divine Plan, not just the physical plane appearances.  Thus, the events—regardless of how horrible they may seem on the physical plane—can be the very events that bring our human family together in compassion and peace.  From the level of our I AM PRESENCE, we can intuit how “all things work together for good.”  (Romans 8:28)  Attunement to our I AM PRESENCE allows us to so powerfully manifest the Light that all darkness disappears.  Then the One Human Family will “beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither will they learn war any more; but they shall all sit under their own vines and under their own fig trees, and no one shall make them afraid; for the mouth of [their I AM PRESENCE] has spoken.”  (Micah 4:3b-4)

World peace … no more fear … abundance for all … One Family of God … all are the fruits of attuning to our I AM PRESENCE and solving all challenges from this level of expanded consciousness.

“Know Thyself” becomes the pathway to Ascension—to peace, familial love for all, abundance and justice for all!

May “Know Thyself” become our top priority during this time of major change involving both destruction of the old and creation of the New Heaven and the New Earth.  To Know Thyself is the foundation of Ascension into conscious awareness of our multi-dimensional Selves … to awareness that we were created as gods!

UNDERSTANDING ASCENSION & OUR MULTIDIMENSIONAL BEING

UNDERSTANDING ASCENSION & OUR MULTIDIMENSIONAL BEING

An excellent interview by Evita Ochel of Dr. Suzanne Lie

http://www.youtube.com/user/EvitaOchel#p/a/u/1/OGt2dzxviJM

FOLLOWING OUR INDIVIDUAL ROAD MAP TO ASCENSION

NOTE BY NANCY:  Little did we know in 2011 just how long it would take to achieve the critical level of mass awakening that would enable us to make the required evolutionary leap in our ascension process.  Finally, in Fall 2014, we are beginning to awaken in great numbers.  I am reposting this article as it seems even more relevant to today’s life within the very intense energies of Light and Love now flooding our planet.

FOLLOWING OUR INDIVIDUAL ROAD MAP TO ASCENSION

Nancy B. Detweiler, M.Ed., M.Div.

       Life is eternal for the Soul—no beginning, no ending.  Many Souls choose to explore the various dimensions of life, rather than remain in the heavenly realms.  Those of us presently residing on Earth made that choice.  During our explorations, we made mistakes that require correction—karma that necessitates transmuting into positive energy.  In order for us to achieve ascension into the higher dimensions, these mistakes must be resolved on Earth plane.

As a result, when preparing for another physical incarnation, we and our spiritual mentors construct a Road Map to guide our Soul along its chosen path.  This Road Map also involves contracting with additional Souls to play particular roles in the forthcoming incarnation.  These Soul contracts are created to ensure that we accomplish the goals upon which we are basing our future physical plane life.

The first step in creating this Road Map is determining our goals regarding the lessons we want to learn, how we desire to transmute old mistakes/karma, and our ultimate mission.  Every Road Map is created for success—if we allow that success to unfold within our lives.  We are not permitted to take on more challenges than we can successfully overcome—if we choose to do so.  However, once we incarnate and find the challenges we chose for ourselves too difficult, we are always free to wait until the next incarnation or the next.  Life is eternal and we are free to take as long as we choose incarnating on the plane of duality.

The second step is selecting our future parents based on:  their willingness to play that parental role and their capacity to provide the type of early childhood experiences our Soul requires in order to learn our lessons, transmute our karma, and prepare for our Soul’s mission.  Many of us choose difficult childhoods as one means of accomplishing our ultimate Soul goal.  We contract with those future parents to play the needed roles.  Most often the roles the parents agree to play are also connected to their own Road Maps and to the goals they plan to achieve.  Life is an intimately woven tapestry of many colors.

The third step is choosing and contracting with the meaningful others with whom we will share some stage of our incarnation.  These persons will play the role of grandparent,   sibling, spouse, teacher/mentor, close friend, professional partner, and our own children.  The selected persons are located at the most beneficial points on our Road Map.  For example:  the spouse with whom we have contracted will appear in our lives at the appropriate time for us to gain the most benefit from the reunion.  (Remember our Soul knew he/she was coming.)

Here, we must recognize that the most benefit does not necessarily feel good.  Instead, that spouse is appearing at the appropriate time in order to fulfill the contract we created before incarnation.  At the point of meeting in the physical, we have the opportunity to decide whether or not our Souls continue to need the previously contracted experiences … we may have already matured past requiring the circumstances involved … we always have the freewill choice to break the contract.

This freewill choice to break the contract is available regarding all facets of our Road Map to Ascension.  For example:  Our Soul may incarnate via the selected parents only to realize that the desired environment does not exist.  The Soul has approximately two years from birth onto the physical plane to determine whether to stay or to leave.  The decision to leave is the basis for many early childhood so-called deaths.  That Soul may choose the same parents at a later stage and find the environment ripe for Soul growth.

The important factor to remember is that our Soul chooses physical incarnation for specific Soul growth purposes.  We did not incarnate on a whim … we are not accidents … we are not robots that require the same treatment for all.  Instead, this incarnation is filled with Soul meaning … our Soul rejoices when we successfully overcome a challenge … our Soul celebrates when we meet and recognize a major destination point on our Road Map.  On the other hand, our Soul cares little about the amount of money we earn or how high on the social ladder we climb.  Success is achieving Soul growth.

Most Souls utilize, often subconsciously, the first 28-30 years of incarnation to resolve many of the challenges on their Road Map.  Then, around this 1st Saturn Return stage of life, our Road Map indicates a time to pause and reflect upon how we choose to live out the remainder of this incarnation.  This pause is usually highlighted on our Road Map by sudden changes, such as the desire to move, to change vocations, or the death of a loved one.  It can be a time of restlessness … a time of wanting to sweep the decks clean and start over.  For this reason, many who marry young divorce around the ages of 28 to 30 yrs.  Many decide the friends with whom they have heretofore associated are not compatible with the next stage on their Road Map.  It is a growth stage intended to result in significant change …a stage for personal evaluation in light of our Soul’s ultimate goal.

After the 1st Saturn Return years, many follow their Road Map in a much more conscious manner.  We recognize that we desire our lives to count as making a difference in the world … that we are to be the Pilot of our lives, rather than allowing our selves to be tossed to and fro by those around us and by the world of events.  We seek self-empowerment, self-love, self-fulfillment.

*****************

Our planet is now quickly changing … we as a planet of people have the unprecedented opportunity to ascend—while in our physical bodies—to a higher dimension of consciousness.  This opportunity comes as Planet Earth prepares to ascend—to shed its former title of Prison Planet and become an Ascended Planet.  We, who are incarnated on Planet Earth may move forward with our Mother Earth if we so choose.  We, who have been imprisoned within the illusion of the plane of duality, may now ascend into the full consciousness that exists on the 5th dimension.  Whereas now, we Earth humans use roughly 10% of our brain power, we may then ascend into usage of our full consciousness.

Evolving into full consciousness entails many new experiences.  The old, familiar world no longer works; it is collapsing and will be forgotten.  The challenges that have heretofore appeared to some as insurmountable will simply melt away.  In their place, a new Earth will emerge.  A new way of life will surprise us!

At the moment, we walk between two worlds.  Following our Road Map requires increased attentive focus on our intuitive insights.  If we listen to our Soul’s guidance, rather than to the ways of the collapsing world, we find walking our Road Map surprising, exciting, and constantly enlarging our conscious awareness.  We are becoming aware of other dimensions and how our Road Map interfaces with those higher planes of consciousness.  This newly emerging world requires some adjustment.

Whereas, heretofore, the majority of our relationships have involved varying degrees of karma, we are now meeting persons who belong to our Soul family.  These relationships feel pure, easy, and compatible.  Deep unconditional love characterizes Soul family.  The 5th dimension is not hung up on love = sex of one form or another, as we Earth humans are.  All is unconditional love on the 5th dimension.  As we meet our Soul family, we have to adjust to the love that is present regardless of the age or gender of that Soul family member.

Another adjustment required is learning to pay attention to synchronic symbols, persons, messages, gifts—however the message is relayed to us by Spirit.  Earth humans listen to what we can hear with our ears and see with our physical eyes.  We tend to ignore messages from our Soul … messages that are directing us according to our Road Map.  For example:  As a teenager, I knew intuitively that I was to attend college.  I heard with my physical ears when my father told me there was no money for college.  I saw with my physical eyes that the way to attend college was to be accepted and pay the tuition.  I heard my Soul instructing me to go to college.  Had I listened to the sounds and sights of the physical plane, I would not have attended college.  But, I chose to listen to the intuitive messages from my Soul.  I wrote the college of my choice and explained that I had no money, but wanted to attend college on faith.  I was accepted.  Now for the money.

My minister knew of my desire.  When a friend of his told him he wanted to send a student to college—all expenses paid—my minister gave him my name.  This dear man paid for my freshman year.  He not only paid my expenses, but would periodically send me extra money with a note that I might like to buy a gift for a friend.  His generosity illustrates well how Divine Order unfolds in our lives when we listen to our Soul, rather than to the world.  His sudden death also reminds us that our Road Map may not be dependent upon a single source to assist us in  achieving our Soul’s goals.  We must be flexible and not easily discouraged.

Another adjustment involves learning to stand alone, as an empowered individual.  Our 3rd dimensional world teaches us to think and act in accordance with tribal folkways, beliefs, and acceptable behavior:  this is the way I am suppose to believe; this is the way I am suppose to act.  Failure to follow tribal beliefs and laws can mean excommunication.  Tribal can mean any group with which we choose to associate.

When we begin to walk between two worlds, we can feel incongruent within the familiar 3rd dimensional world.  We begin to feel energies that the tribe does not feel or, at least, will not admit feeling.  We may be tagged as “losing it,” “touched,” or as “no longer credible professionally.”  The chains holding us within the status quo are heavy … many dare not attempt to step outside the tribal box.  Yet, the more the cosmic energies propel us toward ascension, the harder it is to pretend to be content in the tribal box.  As one friend recently phrased it:  We have been touched by Mother Father God Consciousness.  Ascension requires that we leave behind all that would hold us back.  Our Road Map was planned with this in mind.

Following our Road Map will alert us to the alternatives.  In 2011, it is probable that we have never dreamed of some of our alternatives because they do not presently exist in our visible world.  We tend to forget that our Soul, in conjunction with our spiritual mentors, planned for an entire incarnation.  This can mean that following our Road Map entails making one or more abrupt 90 degree turns … it can mean that we take action with one goal in mind and end up pursuing a very different one.

Life in 2011 is filled to overflowing with change.  We are evolving into an ascended being … we are creating a new Earth and moving forward within our Milky Way Galaxy.  The one facet of life on which we can absolutely depend is that our willingness to follow our individual Road Map to ascension will attract all that we need in order to do so.  Our task is to be alert … follow our intuitive guidance regardless of how incongruent it appears with physical plane reality … and to remember that we are evolving into the All Good.  Our Road Map does not mislead us … we simply must trust as we make our way around the curves.

Our Souls planned our individual Road Map to ensure our freewill opportunity to achieve ascension!  Godspeed to all!

REINCARNATION IN THE BIBLE – PART 1

REINCARNATION IN THE BIBLE

PART I – HAVE I LIVED BEFORE?

EXCERPTS FROM MY BOOK, A NEW AGE CHRISTIAN:

MY SPIRITUAL JOURNEY

Nancy B. Detweiler, M.Ed., M.Div.

Often first impressions and initial experiences upon meeting an individual are based in past life memories.  We can choose how we want to respond to these initial reactions.  An instant dislike of the person can indicate a soul memory that needs to be resolved.  The two of you may have come together—according to perfect divine timing—to heal a former relationship.  On the other hand, an immediate gut-level feeling, like “I don’t trust this person,” may be your soul’s warning to “be watchful as you deal with him.”  It is up to you to discern the difference, perhaps by simply withholding judgment until the two of you are better acquainted.

Two excellent introductory books are the story of Edgar Cayce’s life, There Is A River and Gina Cerminara’s book entitled Many Mansions.  Cayce’s carefully documented clairvoyant readings number in the thousands.  They are housed in the library of the Association for Research and Enlightenment in Virginia Beach, Virginia.  After twenty-two years of giving readings for medical diagnosis, Cayce surprises himself by tapping into a past life of his subject.46 From then on the readings are filled with the accounts of past life influences upon the medical and life conditions of his subjects.

As depicted in the Cayce readings, reincarnation is a means by which humanity evolves spiritually.  The Bible teaches us, in the allegorical story of Adam and Eve, that humanity chose to turn away from God.47 In doing so, we began our descent into materiality and corruption.  Soon we forgot our true identities as children of God, created in the image and likeness of God.  The Christian narrative introduces the man Jesus as the Saviour, the one who can show us the way out of our spiritual darkness into the divine light of God.  In his Sermon on the Mount, Jesus commands us, “Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.”48 In an effort to fulfill this commandment, the individual soul repeatedly incarnates into a physical body.  In the spiritual gospel of John, Jesus explains, “The one who believes in me will also do the works that I do and, in fact, will do greater works than these, because I am going to the Father.49 No one need point out to us that we, at this stage in our spiritual evolution, are unable to perform the works of Jesus.

Reincarnation is the means by which the soul evolves into the perfected state and acquires the knowledge of universal law necessary to “do the works” Jesus does.  Reincarnation is God’s grace manifesting in our lives. God’s grace giving us a second chance throughout eternity. Eternal life is just that: eternal, everlasting, without beginning or ending.  Our souls move back and forth between the world of spirit and the world of physical matter.  Once we evolve past the need to incarnate into physical bodies, we continue our spiritual evolution on higher dimensions of existence.

According to the Cayce readings, our physical body, emotions, and mental attitudes often reflect past life thought and behavioral patterns.  The universal law of cause and effect rules all of life, including humanity’s.  The apostle Paul explains this law:  “Do not be deceived; God is not mocked, for you reap whatever you sow. If you sow to your own flesh, you will reap corruption from the flesh; but if you sow to the Spirit, you will reap eternal life from the Spirit.”50 What we sow in the present life will be what we reap in the following incarnations.  For example:  My friend and I allowed unforgiven anger to be sown in our former life’s relationship.  When we meet in this present life, we immediately tap into the residual emotions from the previous life; we reap the harvest of anger we sowed.  This “reaping” need not be a permanent condition.  The grace of forgiveness is always available.  My friend and I can, through our freewill choice to do so, transform the initial anger into resumption of a lasting friendship.

Cayce’s readings are filled with examples of reaping what has been sown in previous lives.  An individual suffering from severe asthma is told, “You cannot press the life out of others without seeming at times to have it pressed out of oneself.”  A deaf person hears this admonition:  “Then do not close your ears again to those who plead for aid.”  This subject was a nobleman at the time of the French Revolution.51 The universal law of cause and effect can manifest itself in any number of ways.

The word karma is closely associated with the concept of reincarnation.  Karma is what we have sown and are now reaping. As long as we incarnate on Earth, each of us is both sowing and reaping karma.  Karma is a neutral word.  Our behavioral choices determine whether we reap positive or negative karma.  At this stage in human spiritual evolution, the majority of us are reaping both negative and positive.  A word of caution is needed.  We cannot outwardly observe the life conditions of another person and think we know what they are reaping.

While still in spirit, our souls prepare for the next physical incarnation by determining the best way for us to learn the lessons set aside for the particular sojourn on Earth.  For example, a soul may choose to be born blind, not because it has been blind to the needs of others in a previous life, but in order to ensure the development of the intuitive self.  In this case, blindness is not the harvest of past negative behavior.  It is the freewill choice of a soul intent on advancing to a higher level of spiritual wisdom.  Jesus gives us excellent advice when he urges, “Do not judge, and you will not be judged.”52

As part of the preparation process, a soul chooses to incarnate into the family with whom it feels its purposes can best be met.  A soul desiring a profession in music may choose a family attuned to the benefits of a musical education.  Two or more souls may plan to assist each other in accomplishing their soul purposes.  One soul may incarnate as a mentally challenged child in order to facilitate the parents’ lesson in loving unselfishly.  Once more we see the need to withhold judgment.  The mentally challenged child is not reaping a negative effect.  Neither are the parents reaping the results of sinful behavior.  Instead, the child is participating in an act of selfless service.  The parents chose the lesson of unselfish love for the present incarnation; the child volunteered to tutor the parents.  In so doing, the child’s soul is also benefiting.  The list of possibilities or purposes behind physical incarnation is endless.  “Do not judge, and you will not be judged.”

Negative karma very often appears within the arena of close personal relationships.  The Cayce readings seem to infer that a soul’s indifference to human suffering in one lifetime will bring suffering to the individual in a future life.  One of his readings illustrates this fact. A father places his little girl in a Catholic home.  The baby was born premature and hydrocephalic.  His wife died a few days after giving birth.  Wanting to know his previous relationship with his daughter, the father requests a reading from Cayce.  He is told, “In the experience before this you could have helped and you didn’t.  You’d better help in the present.”53

“Why don’t we remember our past lives?” I wonder.

Actually we do.  The fact of reincarnation reveals itself throughout our everyday lives.  We simply must be open to seeing and accepting it.  The child prodigy, love at first sight, immediate antagonism, a compelling sexual attraction, the “I feel like I have known you all my life” sensation, déjà vu experiences, phobias, and seemingly unfounded fears—all can be signals of reincarnation.

Continuity of consciousness, while in the physical body, would be overwhelming for the majority of humanity.  As we are born into the physical plane, we mercifully forget much of what we know.  Our soul decides upon specific goals for the particular incarnation.  To have our minds filled to overflowing with memories of all past lives would be to defeat ourselves before we get started.

A light flashes on in my mind.

“Astrology speaks to the soul’s purpose. Why can it not be interpreted to reveal the lessons our soul would like for us to learn in the present incarnation? Can I see indications of past life memories now affecting the individual?”

My quest for spiritual understanding is becoming even more exhilarating.

The science of astrology is practiced on a variety of levels.  Mundane astrology speaks to the everyday affairs of humanity with little or no attention being paid to the deeper significance of our daily lives.  Most often mundane astrology is interpreted for the future in the form of predictions.

Esoteric astrology deals with the spiritual implications of the predominant thought and emotional patterns of an individual.  Esoteric astrology offers answers to many of our “why?” questions in terms of the spiritual growth needing to take place during this incarnation.  Our role in the cosmic plan can be seen through esoteric astrology.

The Wise Men, depicted in the second chapter of the gospel of Matthew, are cosmic astrologers.  Cosmic astrology is a reading of the heavens in order to predict major cosmic events.  We can see examples of cosmic astrology in the Bible.  The birth of Jesus is one such event.  “In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, asking, ‘Where is the child who has been born king of the Jews?  For we observed his star at its rising, and have come to pay him homage.”54 Near the end of Jesus’ incarnation, he makes reference to cosmic astrology.  In response to his disciples’ questions about his return to Earth, Jesus explains, “There will be signs in the sun, the moon, and the stars.”55

Reincarnation is the foundation upon which esoteric astrology is interpreted.  As I state earlier, reincarnation is the means by which humanity evolves into the perfected state of a child of God.  In our brief look at the readings of Edgar Cayce, we see how our behaviors in one lifetime have impact upon a future lifetime.  Esoteric astrology reveals the ways in which past lives influence the present one.  For example, a client says to me, “Even as a small child, I have always felt I had to be the parent instead of the child.”  Her present life is filled with resentment over this fact.  An esoteric interpretation of this client’s birth chart reveals Saturn in the fourth house.  Saturn often assumes the role of a good parent in our lives.  It insists that we learn a particular soul lesson, just as a good parent requires the child to do homework for school.  The individual’s Saturn is retrograde indicating the tendency to bring an emotional overload from past lives into the present.  It also reveals the likelihood of responsibilities within the childhood home.  The fourth house reveals our psychological constitution and the relationship with mother.  With Saturn retrograde in the fourth house and ruling her Capricorn Ascendant, my client will assume the role of parent from the birth process on, with motivational factors based in past lives.  Even though the mother’s psychological makeup plays into this behavior, tremendous emotional release results from knowing the basis for her parental feelings comes from past lives.  Forgiveness in the present is made easier, thereby transcending the need to reap the results of her resentment in a future life.  She can now choose to sow the seeds of forgiveness.  With this new insight, my client may also choose whether or not to continue assuming the parental role in personal relationships.

Once more questions plague my mind.

“Why does our Western culture choose to ignore the valuable contributions the concept of reincarnation can make in our understanding of life?”

“Why is the Church so hesitant to give credence to a belief in reincarnation?”

One reason is that Christian historians have failed to give reincarnation its rightful place in Church history. As in the case of astrology, Western Christian historians have simply not reported the role of reincarnation. With the dawn of the New Age of Aquarius, ancient books are being translated into English. The layperson can now catch glimpses into what really happened.

The Encyclopedia of Religion concludes an article on reincarnation by affirming that the concepts of reincarnation and karma have done more to shape the whole of Asian thought than any other.56 Ancient Greece, India, and Egypt have well developed belief systems centering around reincarnation.  Pythagoras, Empedocles, Plato, Plotinus, and their followers teach reincarnation.57 Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato predate the Christian era.  Plotinus lives and teaches between 205-270 C.E., as a contemporary of the Christian Church Fathers.  He is not alone in his beliefs concerning reincarnation.

The vast majority of Christians dismiss the above information with a question for which they seek no answer.  What do ancient Greek, Indian, and Egyptian philosophies have to do with Christianity?  A brief study of the world map provides an answer.  Palestine is in close proximity to each of these countries.  Trade routes between Palestine, Greece, India, and Egypt are numerous, allowing a constant exchange of products and ideas with these nations.  Most of us know the Old Testament account of the Hebrew sojourn in Egypt and of the apostle Paul’s journey to Athens, Greece.58 Are we also aware that India, as a part of the Persian Empire under whose rule Palestine lived, is mentioned in the Old Testament book of Esther?59 Archaeological digs have unearthed vases, carnelian beads, and seals that attest to the trade with India dated as far back as 2500-2200 B.C.E.  An Aramaic (the language of Jesus) inscription from the third century B.C.E. illustrates the contact between India and the biblical lands.60

Christianity originates in the Middle East. It grows out of the Jewish religion based in Palestine.  The milieu of both the Old and New Testaments is this intermingling of Greek, Egyptian, and Indian beliefs and customs.  To these, we can add the influence of Persia, Syria, and Italy (all of which periodically rule Palestine during biblical times).  Reincarnation is a widely accepted belief throughout the thousands of years represented in the Bible.  It is naïve to believe the concepts of karma and reincarnation, which “have done more than any other belief to shape the whole of Asian thought” are not known and accepted among the people of the Bible.

Josephus, the first century Jewish historian and contemporary of the Apostle Paul (37-100 C.E.), verifies the presence of a belief in reincarnation within the Jewish community.  He describes three philosophical sects among the Jews of the first century C.E.: the Sadducees, Pharisees, and Essenes.

The Pharisees teach reincarnation for the good souls only:  “They say that all souls are incorruptible; but that the souls of good men are only removed into other bodies, but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment.61

The Essenes teach pre-existence of the soul:  “For their doctrine is this: ‘That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue for ever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as in prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, are released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward.’”62 A belief in the pre-existence of souls is the foundation of reincarnation.  Many scholars are convinced, for three reasons, that the Essenes accept reincarnation.  First, they have high regard for the Jewish Kabala, in which reincarnation is taught as a basic belief.  The earliest known Jews to call themselves Kabalists are the Tanaiim who reside in Jerusalem during the early third century B.C.E.  Second, the Essenes come under the influence of Buddhist monks who travel, in great numbers, throughout the Middle East during the centuries before Jesus’ birth.  Reincarnation is basic to Buddhism.  Third, the Essenes’ doctrines and communal practices reflect a knowledge of the Pythagoreans, who are reincarnationists.63 Thus we find two of the three Jewish sects with which Jesus is familiar accept reincarnation.  We also know that the apostle Paul is a Pharisee, and thus a believer in reincarnation for the good souls only.64

“So why does the Western Church consider a belief in reincarnation heretical?

My frustration with the church is growing. Daily, in my rehabilitation counseling career, I confront the need to provide meaningful services to my clients.  I watch as they persist in self-destructive behavior, partly because their church cannot assist them in putting together the tangled pieces of life’s puzzle.  The belief in reincarnation is like removing the lid from a pot of boiling water—it lets the steam out.  No longer is the steam screaming to be released from the small confines of one lifetime.  Knowing that we have lived before and will live again releases a tremendous amount of bottled up emotional energy.

The belief in only one physical life does more to distort our perceptions concerning life, God, and each other than any other concept.  Failure in a career means failure for life:  “There will be no other opportunity.”  Failure to meet a suitable mate cuts deeply into the self-esteem of the individual:  “No one has loved me enough to marry me.”  The loss of a mate through divorce or death can be devastating:  “I’ll never be happy again.”  The brilliant young person killed in an automobile accident:  “His only chance at life is cut short.”  The person born with a debilitating physical condition has no other alternative than to believe, “God made me like this.” Homosexual and transvestite persons are faced with the same conclusion.  Consider what this says about God to the afflicted one.  God is a God who loves some people and hates others.  Think about what this says to the individual about herself.  “God has to hate me; otherwise, why would God create me this way?”

These tragic conclusions are the result of believing in only one physical lifetime.  We are forced to blame God.  No other choice exists.  We may try to come up with options, but buried in the depths of our being is an ugly demon who continually whispers, “God hates you; God created you different, requiring you to suffer.”  God as Creator is the bottom line for the majority of humanity.  Thus, God is to blame.

The church has thus far been unable to provide therapeutic alternatives to these disastrous life experiences and deductions.  Openness to the science of astrology and the natural laws of reincarnation will allow the church to truly spread the gospel of God’s love.  The church can then offer the healing balm of questions satisfactorily answered.

“Why? Why? Why? Why put band-aids on our sores when the church can offer healing?”  The answer can be found, at least in part, through a study of the early church ecumenical councils.

Jesus incarnates into a very cosmopolitan environment.  His public teachings are simple and straightforward.  However, after his crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension, his followers find themselves in a defensive position.

The disciples face a multitude of questions from the diverse peoples living within the Roman empire.  “Why choose to follow a common criminal?  After all, the Roman government put Jesus to death.”  Their answers vary, according to their understanding of Jesus.  As the years go by, various teachers develop their own explanations and groups of followers.

Jesus’ good news, “the Kingdom of God is within you,”65 is quickly shoved backstage and replaced with theories concerning the identity of Jesus.  Listen to the apostle Paul’s reaction when some of his followers turn to another teacher:  “I am astonished that you are so quick deserting the one who called you in the grace of Christ and are turning to a different gospel—not that there is another gospel, but there are some who are confusing you and want to pervert the gospel of Christ.”66

Paul’s reaction to differences is the exact opposite we see in Jesus’ response.  “John said to him, ‘Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop him, because he was not following us.’  But Jesus said, ‘Do not stop him; for no one who does a deed of power in my name will be able soon afterwards to speak evil of me.   Whoever is not against us is for us.’”67 Within the sphere of God’s love, there is room for variation.

Many of the Church Fathers follow the example of Paul, instead of Jesus.  They disagree vehemently.  All sorts of human motives cloud the issues.  Their ultimate goal, according to Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons, is “the real Church has one and the same faith everywhere in the world.68 Found in Irenaeus’ Selections from the Work Against Heresies, this quote and the book’s title speak volumes.

Church historians and I can only surmise why Paul and the Church Fathers are so insistent upon one and the same faith.  Actually the word faith is misleading.  The controversies and heresies concern doctrines.  The above quote sheds more light on the Ecumenical Councils if translated, “the real Church has one and the same doctrine everywhere in the world.”  Whatever the reason, the negative results have been numerous.

One of the most negative repercussions of attempting to have one and the same doctrine everywhere in the world is the church’s declaration of heresy whenever a scholar, minister, or teacher disagrees with the standard doctrine.  To be judged a heretic is a sentence of excommunication from the church, loss of teaching position in a church affiliated institution, or loss of job as a minister or priest.  For hundreds of years, the sentence for heresy can also be death by burning at the stake.  Thousands of writings are burned, or otherwise destroyed, when the author is declared a heretic.  Remember the word heresy simply means a point of view that differs from “the one and same doctrine.”

The early Church Fathers are particularly vigilant in their search for heresies.  As they strive to create a worldwide church with one and the same doctrine, persons with differing beliefs are ruthlessly condemned.  Among those groups declared heretics are the Christian Gnostics, all of whom are reincarnationists.69 Some scholars are convinced that the Christian Gnostics are the descendants from the original followers of Jesus and the inheritors of Jesus’ secret teachings.70 In Mark 4:11, Jesus confirms a secret message given only to his closest disciples. When the disciples ask Jesus why he speaks to the crowds of people in parables, he answers, “To you has been given the secret [or mystery] of the kingdom of God, but for those outside, everything comes in parables.” All open display of Christian Gnosticism is suppressed by both popes and emperors, often by inflicting the death penalty.  Gnosticism is forced underground.71 Of the thousands of actual writings by the early Gnostic Christians, few survive the destructive zeal of those who condemn them as heresy.72

Individuals are also included in the relentless search for heretics.  Origen (185-254 C.E.) is a most influential Christian thinker.  Saint Jerome declares Origen to be “the greatest teacher of the Church after the apostles.”  Saint Gregory of Nyssa calls him, “the prince of Christian learning in the third century.73 Origen teaches pre-existence of souls and reincarnation.  In 553 C.E., the Fifth Ecumenical Council condemns Origen and his teachings as heretical:

“If anyone does not anathematize Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinarius, Nestorius, Eutyches, and Origen, as well as their heretical books, and also all other heretics who have already been condemned and anathematized by the holy, catholic, and apostolic church and by the four holy synods which have already been mentioned, and also all those who have thought or now think in the same way as the aforesaid heretics and who persist in their error even to death: let him be anathema.”74

Anathema, as defined by Webster, is a “curse solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and accompanied by excommunication.”

In this way (and I give only two examples) the church stifles belief in reincarnation, just as it condemns the use of astrology during the late 15th century.  Although believers in both reincarnation and astrology continue throughout history, only as the New Aquarian Age dawns does this ageless wisdom gain open recognition.

Will the traditional church re-consider?  Will the traditional layperson permit and encourage its ministers to recognize these valuable explanations of a God of love?

These are questions only time can answer.  Meanwhile I encourage those of you who are restless and seeking deeper meaning in life to read for yourselves.  Do not take my word or anyone else’s word.  Search out the original text for yourselves.  Listen to your heart.  Allow your intuitive mind to lead you into Truth.  Prove for yourself that God truly is love.

Have I lived before?  For me the evidence is overwhelmingly in favor of “yes.”

**********************

I encourage you to peruse the Endnotes where you will find additional information.

46 Gina Cerminara, Many Mansions (New York: Signet, 1967) 7.

47 Genesis 3.

48 Matthew 5:48.

49 John 14:12.

50 Galatians 6:7.

51 Cerminara, 50.

52 Luke 6:37a.

53 Cerminara 166.

54 Matthew 2:1-2.

55 Luke 21:25.

56 J. Bruce Long, “Reincarnation.” The Encyclopedia of Religion, 1987.

57 Long 268.

58 Exodus 3-14, Acts 17:15-34.

59 Esther 1:1, Esther 8:9.

60 David B. Weisburg, “India,” Harper’s Bible Dictionary, 1985 ed.

61 Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 3, Chapter 8, No. 14, trans. William Whiston (Grand Rapids, MI:

Kregel Publications, 1960) 478.

62 Josephus 478.

64 Philippians 3:5.

Luke 17:21 The Greek preposition en can be translated in, within, by means of, with, on, among. The Christology of the translator determines the choice. I, therefore, translate en to mean within.

66 Galatians 1:6-7.

Mark 9:38-40. Verse 40 in Mark’s gospel reads: “Whoever is not against us is for us.” A verysimilar quote can be found in Luke 11:23, although the change in wording renders the
exact opposite meaning. “Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever doesnot gather with me scatters.” Mark’s gospel is considered by biblical scholars to bethe earliest of the four gospels and one of the original sources for the writing of Luke.
I, therefore, credit the variance in Greek words—and thus the meaning—to scribal
copying error and deem Mark’s version to be the correct one.
Irenaeus, “The Refutation and Overthrow of the Knowledge Falsely So Called,” Early Church Fathers,
trans & ed. Cyril C. Richardson (New York: Collier Books, 1970) 362.

69 Cranston 152.

70 Cranston 153.

71 Cranston 156.

72 Cranston 153.

73 Cranston 144.

74 Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils, vol 1, ed Norman P. Tanner (Washington, D.C.:

Georgetown University Press, 1990) 119.

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